Authors: Elliott, J. and A. Pipp
Citation: Elliott, J. and A. Pipp. 2019. A Checklist of Montana Mosses (1880-2018). May 3rd. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, Montana. Available at http://mtnhp.org/

Options
Search:
Common Names
Synonyms
Taxonomic Filter:
Display Synonyms
Common Names
Display as images
Notes & Vouchers
Taxon Authors
Show Taxa Alphabetically
Families: 53
Genera: 165
Species: 510
Total Taxa (details): 523

Page 1 of 2: 1 | 2

Tree trunks, rotten wood, and soil in wet to dry habitats.
Mineral-rich rock and soil, often temporarily wet.
Mineral-rich wetlands., Flathead County, Avalanche Basin, Glacier National Park (GNP), J. Holzinger 60 (NY); Flathead County, Hidden Lake Trail, GNP, F. Hermann 18,313 (NY
Mineral-rich wetlands.
Soil, tree bases, and decaying wood.
Wet rock and wood, often in calcareous fens.
Wet soil and rock.
Wet soil, sometimes semi-aquatic.
Avalanche Basin in GNP (Jones 1910, Hedenas 1997), J. Holzinger's collection is from the Avalanche Basin in Glacier National Park (Jones 1910, Hedenas 1997). This is the only known occurrence in the world (Hedenas 2014). No herbarium specimens were found.
Organic soil in mineral-rich wetlands.
Wet soil in mineral-rich wetlands., Specimens were identified as Drepanocladus sendtneri (Schimp.) Warnst., but are referred to here as Drepanocladus sordidus. Apparently, D. sendtneri is restricted to Eurasia and Africa and is distinguished from D. sordidus by a different ratio of medial laminal cell length ot leaf length (Hedanas in FNA 2014).
Soil, rock, and tree bases, usually in wetlands.
Wide variety of habitats.
Wet meadows, fens, and marshes.
Wet rock in montane streams.
Wet rock in montane streams.
Wet rock in montane streams.
Acidic rock in mountain streams.
Rock in springs and streams.
Calcareous rock and wood in montane streams.
Wet acidic rock in or near montane streams.
Acidic rock and wood in streams.
Acidic rock in montane streams.
Acidic rock in montane streams.
Wet soils, wood, humus, and tree bases.
Seeps, springs, and fens.
Calcium-rich wetland habitats in the alpine., Glacier County, Reynolds Creek, W. Schofield 12,078 (TENN, WTU); Glacier County, Lunch Creek cirque, Glacier National Park, B. McCune 5507, 5494 (OSC). Collections from GNP represent a substantial range expansion from the Alaska-Greenland-Canadian Arctic distribution presented in the FNA (2014).
Open, calcareous wetland habitats.
Mineral-rich wetlands.
Soil and humus at high elevations., Flathead County, Sperry Glacier, Glacier National Park, J. Holzinger 64 (NY). Reported by Hedenas (1989).
Soil, humus, logs, and rock.
Calcium-rich soil and humus in wetlands.
Mineral-rich soil and peat in calcareous fens and other wetlands.
Mineral-rich soil and peat in calcareous fens.
Seasonally wet rock crevices, from low to high elevations.
Seasonally wet rock crevices, from low to moderate elevations.
Rock., Lincoln County, Saint Paul Peak, Cabinet Range, T. Spribille 8588 (UBC).
Rock faces, boulders, and walls, often wet, at moderate to high elevations.
Wet soil and soil over rock.
Wet soil and rock.
Soil in wetlands, including fens, marshes,and swamps.
Soil in wetlands, including fens, marshes, and swamps.
Humus and soil on rock ledges at moderate to high elevations.
Exposed organic soil in alpine tundra.
Soil and soil over rock.
Moist soil and rock in alpine areas., J. Holzinger's and W. Schofield's collections are from Glacier National Park.
Wet soil along streams and seeps.
Wet soil along streams and seeps.
Wet soil along streams and seeps.
Wet soil along streams and seeps.
Calcareous rock.
Soil and soil over rock.
Rock and soil over rock at high elevations., Cascade County, Belt Mountains, R. S. Williams s.n. (WIS).
Soil, humus, rotting logs, and tree bases in conifer forests.
Rock and soil., It is reported in Montana based on the FNA (2014); however, herbarium specimens or collection records have not been found
Mineral soil, humus, rotting wood, and tree bases from low to high elevations.
Rotten wood and humus in wetlands.
Soil and humus, often relatively dry and disturbed sites.
Soil, rotting wood, and lower tree trunks.
Soil, limestone, concrete, and lower tree trunks.
Seasonally wet rock in subalpine., Lewis and Clark County, Rogers Pass, J. Elliott 4003 (MONTU).
Wetlands, often emergent from springs and streams.
Soil in dry conifer forest.
Wet soil and rocks near streams, often emergent from water.
Moist soil, rock, and wood., A taxonomically difficult species that may be confused with B. salebrosum (Crum and Anderson 1981).
Humus and rotten wood in forests.
Wet soil or rocks in alpine and subalpine meadows and fens.
Rock and soil.
Rotten wood, humus, and tree bases.
Soil, rock, and decaying logs in forest.
Soil, rock, and decaying logs.
Calcareous soil, rock, humus, and tree bases.
Shaded rock and rocky soil.
Tree bases, fallen logs, and rock.
Litter, rock, soil, and humus in coniferous forests.
Rock, soil, and logs.
Rotting wood and humus.
Rotting wood and humus.
Rock and wood in running water of streams and springs.
Soil and humus in coniferous forests., B. McCune collection is from Swan Valley.
Soil, litter, rotting wood in coniferous forest.
Wet soil and rock in boreal habitats.
Mineral soil, duff, humus, and decaying wood.
Wet rock in streams and on cliffs.
Rock, concrete, and tree bases.
Base of trees and wood in boreal forests.
Wet soil and humus in forests.
Wet rock, oftenSubmerged.
Damp soil and humus in fens and other wetlands.
Acidic, damp soil over rocks and ledges at low to high elevations.
Acidic, damp soil over rocks and ledges at low to high elevations., Park County, Cooke City, J. Elliott 3014 (field notes); Cascade County, Little Belt Mountains, D. Baker s.n. (MONTU).
A pioneer species on soil and in rock and concrete crevices., Many collections of B. argenteum deposited at MONTU are B. lanatum.
Calcareous mineral soil., It is reported in Montana based on the FNA (2014); however, herbarium specimens or collection records have not been found.
CalcareousDamp soil and rocks from moderate to high elevations.
Soil and rock crevices., Typically considered a variety of B. argenteum, but B. lanatum is characteristic of native undisturbed plant communities, whereas B. argenteum is typical of highly disturbed sites (Spence 2014). Herbarium collections of B. argenteum likely include specimens of B. lanatum.
Damp soil., Park County, Lower Aero Lake, P. Lesica s.n. (MONTU).
Soil, often disturbed sites.
Dry soil., Broadwater County, Missouri Headwaters State Park, C. Darigo 3786 (MO); Ravalli County, Birch Creek, J. Hoy 306C (personal herbarium).
Soil., Musselshell County, Milton Ranch, near Roundup, A. Pipp 2016-016 (MONTU); Lewis and Clark County, MacDonald Pass, J. Elliott 3,299 (MONTU).
Damp soil., Flathead County, Flathead Lake, W. Schofield s.n. (UBC).
Seepy rock faces at high elevations., All collections are from near Silver Gate and Cooke City.
Moist, acidic rock and soil over rock.
Damp to wet calcareous soil and rock.
Damp to wet rock and soil.
Damp, shaded rock and soil in rock crevices.
Wet soil and rock., Flathead County, MacDonald Lake, Glacier National Park, R. S. Williams 317 (NY).
Moist and wet soils at high elevations., Glacier County, Blackfeet Indian Reservation, R. S. Williams 392 (MIN, WIS). This is one of the most variable and confusing species in the genus (Spence 2014).
Wet soil and soil over rock.
Wet soil along streams and wetlands.
Soil and soil over rocks.
Wet soil along streams and wetlands.
Dry soil in alpine habitats.
Moist soil in boreal habitats.
Dry, calcareous soil or rock.
Wet soil or soil over rock.
Wet soil in alpine and subalpine habitats., Flathead County, Logan Pass, Glacier National Park, J. Elliott 1,122 (MONTU).
Soil in calcareous wetlands.
Soil in wetlands and along streams.
Litter and rich humus in coniferous forests.
Moist shaded soil and rotted wood.
Bark, rotten wood, and rock at low to high elevations., The most widespread species of the genus in North America (Spence 2014). It is reported in Montana based on the FNA (2014); however, herbarium specimens or collection records have not been found.
Shallow, acidic soil in mountains.
Rotting logs.
Rotting wood.
Wetlands and shallow water.
Mineral-rich wetlands and shallow water.
Mineral-rich wetlands and shallow water.
Organic soil in mineral-rich wetlands.
Soil and humus in fens, springs, and lakes.
Soil and humus in fens, springs, and lakes.
Wetlands, often intermixed with Sphagnum.
Wet soil and humus.
Circumboreal species restricted to calcareous fens and wetlands.
Wet soil at margins of streams, ponds, and wetlands.
Wet soil at the edges of streams and wetlands.
Tree trunks., Flathead County, Columbia Falls, R. S. Williams 210 (MIN, CAS, MSC, NY, WIS).
Rock outcrops and cliffs in alpine areas.
Soil, humus, and rotten wood.
Humus or soil over rock at high elevations in mountains.
Soil, humus, and rotting wood.
Rotten wood and tree bases.
Rotten wood and tree bases.
Rotten wood, tree bases, soil over rock.
Rotten wood, tree bases, and soil over rock., Flathead County, Belton, Glacier National Park, J. Holzinger s.n. (MO).
Rotten wood, humus, and soil.
Rotten wood, humus, and soil., Flathead County, Bigfork, M. Jones 7,845 (NY).
Rotting logs, stumps, and tree bases.
Humus and sandy soil, often over boulders.
Rotten wood, humus, and soil.
Rotten wood, humus, and soil over rock.
Wet organic soil., Flathead County, Ambrose Fen near Creston, J. Elliott 2,528 (MONTU); Lake County, Yellow Bay Creek, W. Schofield 11,726 (UBC).
Rotten wood, humus, and soil over rock.
Damp soil and rock in alpine areas.
Rotten wood.
Organic soil in bogs and fens.
Moist alpine tundra and rock.
Soil and rock in alpine areas., All collections from Glacier National Park.
Moist, sandy soil.
Wet rock and soil.
Soil and soil over rock.
Soil and soil over rock, often calcareous.
Soil, often disturbed sites.
Damp soil., Flathead County, near Essex, R. S. Williams 241 (MIN, WIS).
Calcareous rock and soil.
Soil and rocks at moderate to high elevations.
Damp soil over range of elevations.
Soil over rock.
Soil and rock around waterfalls and seeps in montane habitats., Flathead County, Mineral Park , Glacier National Park, M. Jones 11,077 (MO).
Soil over rock.
Soil over rock.
Soil over rock.
Forms extensive mats on disturbed, calcareous soils.
Soil over rock.
Humus and decaying wood in coniferous forest.
Rock and tree bases., Madison County, granite along the South Fork of Willow Creek, J. Elliott 1817 (MONTU).
Moist soil, rock, and logs.
Shaded moist soil and rocks.
Moist, shaded soil over rocks near streams.
Submerged in springs, attached to wood and rocks.
Wet limestone, oftenSubmerged.
Moist soil, rock, and wood.
Tree trunks and branches.
Moist soil, rock, and wood.
Substrates in streams, wetlands, and pools, often seasonally dry.
Flowing streams.
Flowing streams and pools.
Dry soil., Cascade County, Missouri River near Great Falls prior to dam construction, R. S. Williams 31 (DUKE).
Moist soil and humus., Cascade County, Tenderfoot Creek drainage of Belt Mountains, R. S. Williams 49 (MIN, MSC, NY, WIS, MU, YU).
Disturbed soil, often following fire.
Exposed calcareous soils, often disturbed habitats along river bluffs., R. S. Williams collections.
Soil and gravel in ephemeral drainages.
Wet soil, rock, and concrete.
Acidic moist and periodically dry soil (Ochyra and Bednarek-Ochyra 2007).
Dry and exposed acidic rocks in mountains., Lincoln County, Whitefish Range, T. Spribille 4126A (personal herbarium).
Dry and exposed acidic rocks and cliffs.
Wet rocks in streams and near waterfalls, and wet barren soil., Glacier County, Logan Pass, Glacier National Park, W. Schofield 12,288 (NY) .
Acidic rocks in streams and waterfalls., Flathead County, Glacier National Park, H. Hermann 20,756 (NY).
Montane species on wet rock faces and rocky soils near streams and in late snow patches (Ochyra and Bednarek-Ochyra 2007).
Acidic rocks, cliffs, and soil, often in late-snow areas.
Moist and dry acidic rocks over a range of elevations.
Wet rock in or near streams.
Dry, exposed or sheltered acidic rock and talus slopes.
Rock in and near streams.
Rock in montane habitats., Flathead County, Lake MacDonald, Glacier National Park, R. S. Williams 313 (COLO).
Moist to dry granite near streams at low to high elevations. Specimens identified as R. aquaticum were determined to be a new species, C. ryzardii (Ochyra and Bednarek-Ochyra 2007)., Glacier County, Glacier National Park, W. Schofield 12,260 (MONTU).
Acidic rock on warm, dry sites.
Calcareous sandstone, limestone and concrete.
Damp acidic rock in boreal and alpine meadows and slopes.
Dry rock at low to high elevations., Herbarium specimens are often misidentified as Racomitrium heterostichum (Hastings and Greven 2007).
Vernally moist rock faces. Endemic to Montana and Idaho., R. S. Williams' type specimen is from Bad Rock Canyon near Columbia Falls (Williams 1900).
Exposed acidic granite and quartzite., It is reported in Montana based on the FNA (2007); however, herbarium specimens or collection records have not been found.
Acidic granite and sandstone.
Exposed, dry rock.
Damp, acidic rock.
Shaded, damp, acidic rock.
Dry acidic boulders at moderate elevations., Often identified as a variety of Racomitrium heterostichum; consequently, it has not been commonly recognized in North America (Hastings and Greven 2007). Missoula County, Lolo Hot Springs, F. Hermann 20,167 (MICH).
Rock in full sun. Dry sagebrush steppe in Yellowstone National Park., Park County, dry sagebrush steppe in Yellowstone National Park, J. Harpel 41,761 (YELLO).
Dry, acidic granite and quartzite.
Rock in or near mountain streams.
Exposed acidic granite and sandstone.
Dry, warm rocks., Known mostly from scattered locations in the southwestern United States. It is reported in Montana based on the FNA (2007); however, herbarium specimens or collection records have not been found.
Dry, partially exposed, acidic granite, sandstone, and basalt.
On a variety of rock types., Rare in the western United States (Hastings and Greven 2007). Lake County, University of Montana Biological Station, M. Robertson s.n. (PH).
Sandstone, limestone, and volcanic ash.
Acidic and basic rock, old concrete, and tree trunks.
Vitt and Belland (1991) mapped its distribution, which includes a collection from Carbon County, the easternmost record in North America.
Exposed or sheltered sites on acidic granite and sandstone at moderate to high elevations.
Moist calcareous rock at moderate to high elevations.
Acidic rock, often vertical faces.
Dry acidic rock.
Dry sandy or gravelly soils (Ochyra and Bednarek-Ochyra 2007).
Arctic-alpine on rock and humus., Glacier County, Hanging Garden, Glacier National Park, F. Hermann 18,102 (MONTU).
Dry sandy and gravelly soil in subalpine habitats., This has recently been described as a distinct species (Ochyra and Bednarek-Ochyra 2007).
Dry or intermittently moist soil, soil over rock, and humus.
Lincoln County, Whitefish Range, T. Spribille 4127 (personal herbarium).
Soil and rock in dry, exposed habitats.
Wet or dry rocks along watercourses.
Dry limestone at high elevations.
Calcareous rocks and substrates such as concrete at low to moderate elevations., Previously, may have been confused with Grimmia apocarpa (McIntosh 2007). It is reported in Montana based on the FNA (2007); however, herbarium specimens or collection records have not been found.
Rock in dry habitats.
Wet or dry rocks along intermittent watercourses.
Rock or rarely tree bark in mesic habitats.
Wet to dry rocks along watercourses.
Rock and rock crevices.
Calcareous rock over a range of elevations.
Acidic rock.
Acidic rock and cliff faces near streams., Ravalli County, near Bass Creek, B. McCune 558 (OSC).
Wet soil and humus in bogs and fens.
Soil and humus in conifer forests.
Soil, humus, and decaying wood in coniferous forests.
Partially shaded soil and rock.
Damp to wet soil and humus on shaded sites along streams in the spray of waterfalls., Historically, this species has been combined with R. squarrosus, but DNA analysis indicates genetic discontinuity between them (Rohrer 2014).
Soil and humus in coniferous forest.
Soil, litter, and rock in coniferous forest., Pacific Northwest regional endemic.
Wet soil at calcareous spring.
Logs and stumps in forests.
Calcium-rich rock in mountains.
Wet tundra in alpine areas., Glacier County, Reynold Mountain in Glacier National Park, B. McCune (s.n.) and P. Lesica (UBC).
Tree bases, soil, and rock.
Tree bases, decaying logs, and rock.
Tree bases and decaying wood.
Crevices in rock and soil at high elevations.
Wet soil, humus, and logs.
Rock (usually acidic), humus, and rotting wood.
Moist soil and humus.
Rock, soil, and tree bases., Lake County, Yellow Bay, Flathead Lake, S. Flowers 10,130 (UTC).
Rock and soil over rock.
Soil, rock, and tree bases.
Soil, rock, tree bases, rotting logs., Glacier County, Saint Mary Lake, Glacier National Park, W. Schofield 11,847 (NY, VT).
Tree bases, cliff faces, and decaying logs.
Rock, soil, tree bases, and decaying logs.
Soil, rock, and tree bases.
Rock and tree bases.
Rock in alpine and subalpine.
Tree bases and moist soil.
Tree bark and rock.
Mineral soil and rock in alpine and subalpine habitats., Lincoln County, Midvale, L. Umbach 529 (WIS).
Boulders and mineral soil along streams.
Boulders and mineral soil along streams.
Dry boulders and mineral soil., Meagher County, Tenderfoot Creek, R. S. Williams 151 (F); Glacier County, Glacier National Park, F. Hermann 18,071 (WTU).
Rock and mineral soil near streams.
Rock, tree bases, and mineral soil.
Rock, mineral soil, and tree bases.
Dry boulders and mineral soil in alpine and subalpine habitats.
It is reported in Montana based on the FNA (2014); however, herbarium specimens or collection records have not been found.
Twigs and branches of trees and shrubs and tree bases.
Dry Rock., Powell County, Chamberlain Meadow, J. Elliott 4037 (MONTU).
Dry, shaded calcareous rock.
Shaded calcareous rock, tree bases, and wood.
Humus-covered boulders and peaty soil., Flathead County, Columbia Falls, R. S. Williams s.n. (MSC).
Rotten wood, organic soil, and humus and rock at low to moderate elevations.
Rotton wood, soil, humus, and rock at low to high elevations.
Wet tufa face at spring. Rotten wood and organic soil of fens., Flathead County, Columbia Falls, R. S. Williams s.n. (NY); Cascade County, Isaac Walton Spring, J. Elliott 4058 (MONTU).
Rotting wood and humus.
Wet soil and humus in bogs and fens., Flathead County, Salish Mountains, T. Spribille 5471 (COLO); Flathead County, Blanchard Lake Fen, P. Lesica s.n. (MONTU).
Wet soil and peat in bogs and fens.
Wet soil and peat in fens.
Calcareous fens.
Restricted to rich, calcareous fens and seeps., Teton County, Pine Butte Fen, J. Elliott 1403, 3144 (MONTU); Glacier County, Lee Creek Fen, Glacier National Park, P. Lesica s.n. (field notes).
Soil, rock, tree bases, and humus in shaded habitats.
Rock, soil, and mine tailings naturally enriched with heavy metals (Shaw 2014).
Damp soil, humus, and rock.
Moist soil, humus, and rock.
Shaded, often calcareous soils, humus, rock, and tree bases.
Moist soil, humus, and rotting wood in forests.
Moist soil, humus, and rotting wood in forests.
Calcareous soil, humus, and rotting wood along streams.
Wet soil and rock.
Moist soil and humus.
Moist soil and humus.
Moist soil and humus.
Moist soil and humus.
Moist soil and humus.
Moist soil and humus.
Moist soil and humus.
Acidic gravelly or sandy soil., Lincoln County, Cabinet Mountains, D. Gill 95 (COLO).
Acidic sandy or gravelly disturbed soil.
Humus and organic soil along streams, paths, and tree bases at moderate to high elevations.
Gravelly, organic-poor soil., Sanders County, upper Clear Creek, C. Odegard 113, 116 (MONTU).
Disturbed soil on upturned tree bases, along paths and streams, and in rock crevices at low elevations., Flathead County, Columbia Falls, R. S. Williams s.n. (DUKE, ILL, WIS).
Humus in fen., Lake County, Point Pleasant Fen, D. Barton s.n. (MONTU).
Humus-rich soil along streams and trails.
Soil in late snowmelt areas of alpine and subalpine., Glacier County, Lunch Creek, Glacier National Park, J. Shaw 2733 (DUKE).
Soil and decaying wood.
Damp soil in alpine and subalpine habitats.
Acidic, sandy, disturbed soil., Carbon County, near Red Lodge, W. Welch 15,901 (NY).
Acidic humus-rich soil in alpine habitats., Judith Basin County, Belt Mountains, R. S. Williams 119 (WIS).
Disturbed sandy or clay soils along streams., Meagher and Flathead Counties, R. S. Williams 145, 289 (F, WTU, WIS, MU).
Moist soil and humus along streams in forest.
Moist soil and humus.
Moist soil and humus.
Moist soil and humus.
Shaded rock and broad-leaved tree bark., Missoula County, Lolo National Forest, F. Hermann 20,179 (MONTU).
Trees, rocks, and humus.
Rock and soil over rock.
Shaded soil, rock, and tree bases along streams., Glacier County, Iceberg Lake Trail, Glacier National Park, E. Gadsby s.n. (PH); Ravalli County, Bear Creek, Bitterroot Mountains, B. McCune 4605 (OSC).
Soil, rock, and tree bases.
Tree trunks and rarely rock.
Rock, sometimes trees.
Rock, especially limestone, and tree bases.
Calcareous cliffs and large boulders.
Deciduous trees, especially cottonwoods.
Rock, usually limestone or calcareous sandstone.
Non-calcareous rock in open forest.
Trunks and branches of trees and dry rock.
Dry boulders and cliffs in direct sunlight.
Tree trunks and rock crevices.
Granitic boulders in coniferous forests.
Granite County, near Welcome Creek Wilderness, W. Schofield s.n. (UBC).
Non-calcareous boulders and cliff faces.
Coniferous and deciduous trees.
Rotten wood, rock, organic soil, and humus in coniferous forests.
Shaded soil, humus, rocks, logs, and tree bases., Lake County, University of Montana Biological Station, J. Shevock 15360 (CAS).
Rotten wood, rock, organic soil, and humus in coniferous forests.
Soil, rock, and tree bases.
Shaded soil or humus on boulders and cliffs.
Rotting logs, humus, and soil.
Decaying wood in coniferous forests.
Moist to wet decaying wood and rocks.
Wet soil, humus, and decaying wood.
Acidic rock, soil, humus.
Bare soil on disturbed sites, often root masses of overturned trees.
Clay or sandy soil in exposed habitats.
This species has been misidentified in North America and most records are probably Atrichum selwynii. Atrichum undulatum is a European species that has been introduced to a few areas of the United States (Smith and Ireland 2007).
Soil and humus at high elevations.
Soil and humus., Lincoln County, Cabinet Mountains, S. Flowers 6675 (COLO); Lincoln County, Cabinet Mountains, J. Elliott s.n. (MONTU).
Moist soil at high elevations., Flathead County, Sperry Glacier Trail, Glacier National Park, F. Hermann 20698 (F, NY).
Crevices and ledges of moist shaded rock.
Crevices and ledges of moist shaded rock.
Soil in alpine and subalpine habitats.
Soil and humus in moist coniferous forests.
Soil and duff at moderate to high elevation.
Soil and humus at moderate to high elevation.
Moist acidic soil and humus in alpine and subalpine habitats.
Damp, gravelly soil and rocks in alpine and subalpine habitats.
Moist organic soils.
Periodically flooded areas in wetlands and meadows.
Soil and humus and soil over rock.
Shallow, well-drained sandy or gravelly soil.
Organic soil and peat in wetlands and alpine tundra.
Bare or disturbed soil, often calcareous, at low to moderate elevations., Montana is the only state in the lower 48 where it has been found (FNA 2007).
Dry soil and rock in conifer forest and plains at low to moderate elevations.
Soil and rock.
Soil in conifer forest., It is reported in Montana based on the FNA (2007); however, herbarium specimens or collection records have not been found.
Soil and walls, usually calcareous.
Soil and rock, often calcareous.
Wet rock and soil., Cascade County, banks of Missouri River prior to dam construction, R. S. Williams 120 (MIN, F, WIS, WTU) .
On dry soil and rock, including volcanic ash outcrops and mortar.
Soil, sandstone, conglomerate, and concrete.
Soil and rock outcrops in wet areas and tundra.
Wet rocks on stream banks and canyon walls at low to high elevations., Meagher County, Tenderfoot Creek in the Belt Mountains, R. S. Williams 142 (COLO); Lincoln County, Kootenai Falls, S. Flowers 10,252 (MO).
Calcareous rock, cliffs, and soil.
Soil, calcareous outcrops, and basalt.
Limestone, sandstone, and soil.
Soil over rock.
Wet soil and rock.
Wet soil and rock.
Calcareous rock, granite, sandstone, and volcanic ash.
Wet, calcareous/tufa deposits at springs.
Moist rock, often limestone.
Moist, often alkaline soil, including soil derived from volcanic ash.
Moist rock, often limestone.
Calcareous soils at low to moderate elevations in grassland and steppe vegetation., Ravalli County, Bitterroot Valley, J. Hoy 306 (MONTU). Reported by Eckel et al. (1997) .
Soil and rock faces., Lincoln County, Murphy Lake, T. Spribille 6657 (personal herbarium).
Volcanic and dry saline soil.
Sandy, saline, or volcanic soil.
High-elevation soils., Glacier County, Swiftcurrent Mountain, Glacier National Park, H. Imshaug 7,830 (MICH).
Dry soil and rock, including soil derived from volcanic ash., Ravalli County, Willoughby Bluffs Natural Area, J. Hoy 321b (personal herbarium); Missoula County, Missoula, B. McCune s.n. (OSC).
Soil in desert and steppe habitats; often forms extensive carpets., Can be confused with S. ruralis (Mishler 2007).
Bark of trees, rarely on rocks., Lincoln County, Kootenai Falls, J. Elliott 2890 (MONTU); Sanders County, Clark Fork River, C. Odegard 241 (MONTU).
Soil and rocks.
Soil and rock, including soil derived from volcanic ash.
Soil and rock., Ravalli County, Skalkaho area, H. Iltis 3,930 (ISC).
Dry soil and rock on dry microsites in grassland and sagebrush steppe vegetation.
Soil and rock.
Soil and rock, often disturbed sites.
Wet or dry rocks in canyons and cliffs., Flathead County, Bad Rock Canyon, F. Hermann 20,649 (DUKE); Deer Lodge County, Storm Lake, W. Weber s.n. (COLO).
Soil and rock.
Wet soil and rock., Flathead County, Mud Creek in Glacier National Park, F. Hermann 22,377 (MICH, WTU).
Soil and rock.
Soil and limestone.
Calcareous soil.
Soil, full sun., Park County, sagebrush steppe, J. Harpel 38,804 (YELL0).
Soil and rock, usually calcareous., It is reported in Montana based on the FNA (2007); however, herbarium specimens or collection records have not been found.
Soil, usually calcareous. It is reported to occur in Montana based on the FNA (2007)., It is reported in Montana based on the FNA (2007); however, herbarium specimens or collection records have not been found.
Soil and soil over rock.
Calcareous soils and rock, including steep deposits of volcanic ash.
Calcareous rock, walls, and crevices.
Soil., Ravalli County, Bitterroot Valley, J. Hoy s.n. (MONTU); Cascade County, Crooked Falls on the Missouri River prior to dam construction, R. S. Williams s.n. (WIS).
Calcareous rock and soil.
Rock, soil, and humus.
Rock, soil, rotten wood, and tree bases.
Soil over rock and logs.
Moist, calcareous habitats at high elevations., Glacier County, Reynolds Creek, Glacier National Park, F. Hermann 18,152 (no herbarium specimen found), reported by Hermann (1969).
Rock in montane forests.
Calcareous rock and sandstone.
Calcareous wetlands and watered lawns.
Humus and duff on coniferous forest floors.
Moist soil, humus, and tree bases.
Rock and soil on exposed ridges and summits, often at the edges of snowfields with Kiaeria falcata (Newmaster 2007)., It is reported in Montana based on the FNA (2007); however, herbarium specimens or collection records have not been found.
Soil over rock., Sanders County, near Paradise, G. Moore and P. Lesica s.n. (MONTU).
Shady rock and soil over rock., Sanders County, Cascade Creek, G. Moore and P. Lesica s.n. (MONTU).
Shady acidic rock and soil over rock., It is reported in Montana based on the FNA (2007); however, herbarium specimens or collection records have not been found.
Rock crevices and soil over rock., Flathead County, Bad Rock Canyon, R. S. Williams 295 (F, NY, MIN, WIS).
Rock and crevices., Cascade County, Neihart, R. S. Williams 183 (MIN, F, NY, WIS); Beaverhead County, Pioneer Range, P. Lesica s.n. (MONTU).
Trees, fence posts, and logs.
Acidic rock in coniferous forest.
Soil and rock at high elevations.
Moist soil at high elevations.
Moist soil at high elevations.
Moist soil and rock.
Moist soil and rotten wood.
Soil and soil over rock.
Mineral soil in crevices and caves and other shaded habitats., J. Holzinger collection is from near Lake McDonald in Glacier National Park.
Exposed or submerged rocks in rivers and streams.
Exposed or submerged rocks in rivers and streams.
Moist, often dripping rock faces in alpine and montane habitats.
Calcareous substrates., Montana, R. S. Williams s.n. (YU). Also cited by FNA (2007) as present in Montana.
Moist rock, often limestone.
Crevices and protected areas on bare, calcareous rock., D. Vitt's field notes state it was collected near Beta Lake, southwest of Hungry Horse.
Poor to medium fens. It is reported to occur in Montana based on the FNA (2007).
Wet soil and peat.
Wet soil and peat.
Wet soil and peat.
Wet soil and peat., Flathead County, Lake MacDonald, Glacier National Park, L. Umbach 794 (ILL); Flathead County, Fish Lake, GNP, J. Elliott 1,118 (WIS, MONTU).
Low hummock with shrubs in fen., Missoula County, Shoofly Meadows, J. Elliott 5044 (MONTU).
Wet soil and peat.
Wet soil and peat.
Wet soil and peat.
Peatlands., Lincoln County, Drip Creek Fen in the Big Creek watershed, T. Spribille 5751, 5753 (ALTA).
Wet soil and peat.
Wet soil and peat., Missoula County, Mary’s Frog Pond, J. Moore 3 (Elliott and Moore 1989); Flathead County, Apgar Mountains, Glacier National Park, T. Spribille 1,921 (MONTU).
Wet soil and peat in fens.
Wet soil and peat.